Fur trade - Wikipedia

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During the s and s, the Beaver Wars initiated by the Iroquois also known as the Haudenosaunee forced a massive demographic shift as their western neighbors fled the violence.

They sought refuge west and north of Lake Michigan. Inthe Iroquois made a series of raids into Wendake that were intended to destroy the Wendat as a people with thousands of Wendat taken to be adopted by Iroquois families with the rest being killed. The two imperial powers and their native allies competed in conflicts that culminated in the French and Indian Wara part of the Seven Years' War in Europe. The — voyage of French traders Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard Chouart des Groseilliers into the country north and west of Lake Superior symbolically opened this new era of expansion.

Their trading voyage proved extremely lucrative in furs. More importantly, they learned of a frozen sea to the north that provided easy access to the fur-bearing interior.

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Upon their return, French officials confiscated the furs of these unlicensed coureurs des bois. Radisson and Groseilliers went to Boston and then to London to secure funding and two ships to explore the Hudson Bay.

Their success led to England's chartering of the Hudson's Bay Company ina major player in the fur trade for the next two centuries. French exploration and expansion westward continued with men such as La Tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi and Marquette exploring and claiming the Great Lakes as well as the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. To bolster these territorial claims, the French constructed a series of small fortifications, beginning with Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario in The competitive impact of the new Tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi Hudson's Bay Company trade was felt as early aswith diminished returns for the French and the role of the native middlemen.

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This new competition directly stimulated French expansion into the North West to win back native customers. The French used diplomatic negotiations with natives to win back trade and an aggressive military policy to temporarily eliminate the Hudson's Bay Company competition.

On one hand, having the Tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi Nations at war with other nations prevented those nations from trading with the English at Albany while on the other hand, the French did not want the Iroquois to become the only middlemen in the fur trade. Resurgent Iroquoian warfare in the s also stimulated the fur trade as native French allies bought weapons. The new more distant markets and fierce English competition stifled direct trade from the North West with Montreal.

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The old system of native middlemen and coureurs de bois traveling to trade fairs in Montreal or illegally to English markets was replaced by an increasingly complex and labor-intensive trade network. Licensed voyageursallied with Montreal merchants, used water routes to reach the far-flung corners of the North West with canoe loads of trade goods.

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These risky ventures required large initial investments and had a very slow tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi. The first revenues from fur sales in Europe did not arrive until four or more years after the initial investment. These economic factors concentrated the fur trade in the hands of a few large Montreal merchants who had available capital.

Indigenous Peoples' response to French—English competition[ edit ] The effect on beaver stocks of competition between the English and the French was disastrous. The status of beavers changed dramatically as it went from being a source of food and clothing for Indigenous Peoples to a vital good for exchange with the Europeans.

The French were constantly in search of cheaper fur and trying to tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi off Indigenous middleman which led them to explore the interior all the way to Lake Winnipeg and the Central Plains. While some historians dispute the claims that the care sunt opțiunile intraday was predominantly responsible for over-exploitation of stocks, [26] others have used empirical analysis to emphasize the changing economic incentives for Indigenous hunters and role of the Europeans in the matter.

Calvin Martin holds that there was a breakdown of the relationship between man and animal among some Indigenous actors who hunted to feed global fur markets with little consideration or understanding of the possibility of extinction. The Hudson's Bay Company had a technical monopoly of the beaver trade within the drainage basin of Hudson Bay while the Compagnie d'Occident was given a monopoly of the beaver trade farther south. The English organized their trade on strictly hierarchical lines while the French used licenses to lease the use of their posts.

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This meant that the French incentivized the extension of trade, and French traders did indeed infiltrate much of the Great Lakes region. The increasing penetration near English ports now meant that the Aboriginals had more than one place to sell their goods. As competition increased between the English and French in the s, the fur was still predominantly caught by Aboriginal tribes which acted as the middleman.

The response to increased competition led to a severe over-harvesting of beavers.

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Data from three of the trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company show this trend. While the view that increased competition between the English and the French led to over-exploitation of beaver stocks by the Aboriginals does not receive uncritical support, most believe that Aboriginals were the primary actors in depleting animal stocks.

There is a lack of critical discussion on other factors such as beaver population dynamics, the number of animals harvested, nature of property rights, prices, role of the English and the French in the matter. The primary effect of increased French competition was that the English raised the prices they paid to the Aboriginals to harvest fur.

The result of this was greater incentive for Aboriginals to increase harvests. Increased price will lead to a gap between demand and supply and to a higher equilibrium in terms of supply. Data from the trading posts show that the supply of beavers from the Aboriginals was price-elastic and therefore traders responded with increased harvests as prices rose.

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The harvests were further increased due to the fact that no tribe had an absolute monopoly near any trade and most of them were competing against each other to derive the maximum benefit from the presence of the English and the French. Open access to resources leads to no incentive to conserve stocks, and actors which try to conserve lose out compared to the others when it comes to maximizing economic output.

Therefore, there appeared to be a lack of concern by tribes of the First Nations about the sustainability of the fur trade. The problem of over-exploitation is not helped by the fact that the efforts by the French to remove the middlemen such as the Huron who increasingly resented their influence meant that stocks were put under more pressure.

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All these factors contributed to an unsustainable trade pattern in furs which depleted beaver stocks very fast. Carlos and Frank D. Lewis shows that apart from the settling to a lower level of stable population, further declines were caused by over-harvesting in two of the three English trading posts Albany and York.

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The data from the third trading post are also very interesting in that the post did not come under French pressure and was therefore shielded from the kind of over-exploitation of stocks which resulted at the other trading posts. At Fort Churchill, the stocks of beaver adjusted to the maximum sustained yield level. The data from Churchill further reinforce the case of over-exploitation of stocks caused by the French-English competition.

Radisson was informed by the village elders that he could have sex with any unmarried women in the village provided that he did not trade with the Dakota aka Siouxwho were the enemies of the Ojibwe at the time. Having established a relationship with a particular spirit at puberty, women would go on further vision quests throughout their lives with more salon de infrumusetare binara and dreams to continue the relationship.

In Septemberthe French diplomat and soldier Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhutcalled a peace conference at Fond du Lac modern Duluth, Minnesota of all the "nations of the north" which was attended by Ojibwe, Dakota, and Assiniboine leaders, where it was agreed that the daughters and sons of the various chiefs would marry each other to promote peace and ensure the flow tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi French goods into the region.

For the Ojibwe, like the other Indians, saw all life in this world being based upon reciprocal relationships, with Ojibwe women leaving behind "gifts" of tobacco when harvesting plants to thank nature for providing the plants while tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi a bear was killed, a ceremony was held to thank the bear for "giving" up its life to them. Marie working for the North West Company.

Later in her old age, she gave an account to British writer Anna Brownell Jameson of how she came to be married. Why are you punishing yourself?

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Here is food for you! Also, she dreamed of being on a high hill, which was surrounded by water, and from which she beheld many canoes full of Indians, coming to her and paying her homage; after this, she felt as if she was being carried up into the heavens, and as she looked down on the earth, she perceived it was on fire and said to herself, "All my relations will be burned!

She fasted for ten days, during which time her grandmother brought her at intervals some water. When satisfied that she had obtained a guardian spirit in the white stranger who haunted her dreams, she returned to her father's lodge". The American anthropologist Ruth Landes in her book Ojibwe Women described Ojibwe society in the s as based on "male supremacy", and she assumed this was how Ojibwe society had always been, a conclusion that has been widely followed.

The harsh terrain imposed a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle on the people living there as to stay in one place for long would quickly exhaust the food supply. The Indians living in the sub-arctic had only small dogs incapable of carrying heavy loads with one fur trader in calling Gwich'in dogs "miserable creatures no smaller than foxes" while another noted "dogs were scare and burdens were supported by people's backs". Perry suggested that under the impact of the fur trade that certain misogynistic tendencies that were already long established among tranzacționarea tendințelor pe forturi Northern Athabaskan peoples became significantly worse.

North American fur trade - Wikipedia

No persons in this country are so proper for this work as the women, because they are inured to carry and haul este posibil să retragi bani dintr- o opțiune loads from their childhood and to do all manner of drudgery". This caused serious social tensions, as Gwich'in young men found it impossible to have a mate, as their leaders took all of the women for themselves.

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By contrast, the absence of waterways flowing into Hudson's Bay the major river in the subarctic, the Mackenzie, flows into the Arctic Ocean forced the Northern Athabaskan peoples to travel by foot with the women as baggage carriers. In this way, the fur trade empowered Cree and Ojibwe women while reducing the Northern Athabaskan women down to a slave-like existence.

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The newly formed United States began its own attempts to capitalize on the fur trade, initially with some success. By the s the fur trade had begun a steep decline, and fur was never again the lucrative enterprise it had once been.